Gynecomastia is defined as excessive growth of breasts in men. Breast growth can be caused by the contemporary urban and sedentary lifestyle or unhealthy nutrition.
Breast enlargement in males can be seen in the neonatal period, adolescence and old age. Neonatal gynecomastia is caused by the hormone estrogen transferred from the mother. This condition will reverse after some time. Pubertal gynecomastia is caused by changes in the estrogen-testosterone balance, and will reverse after a while. If the condition does not spontaneously improve, intervention may be necessary after puberty. Gynecomastia is mostly observed in adult males over 50 years old.
What Causes Gynecomastia?
- Hormone changes,
- Drugs and alcohol abuse,
- Certain medications,
- Health problems.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Gynecomastia
Breast tenderness, swelling, pain or nipple discharge can be listed as the main symptoms of gynecomastia. The presence of a hard walnut-sized mass in manual examination, together with blood and hormone tests will support the diagnosis. Advanced diagnostic methods such as MRI, USG, and CT can also be used if necessary. If the examinations do not reveal any malignant underlying causes, treatment can proceed to surgery.
During and After Gynecomastia Surgery
In gynecomastia surgery, excess fat in the growing breast tissue is removed by liposuction without excision. The only incisions will be small cuts large enough for the small tubes to enter, which can be closed with a single stitch after the procedure. However, this method may not be sufficient if the enlargement is excessive. In such cases, the breast tissue will be removed through a small incision at the outer border of the areola.
However, the most commonly preferred method is currently laser liposuction. This method disintegrates the excess fat tissue in the breast, which is then removed with small tubes.
Gynecomastia operation is generally performed under general anesthesia, and in some cases with local anesthesia. The patient is discharged the same day or after one day of hospitalization.
There may be some pain, swelling and edema after gynecomastia surgery. These will improve spontaneously within 1-2 weeks. The patient should try and avoid excessive arms and shoulder movement to accelerate the healing process.